One might consider that the distinction sometimes made between field hands and house servants, portraying the one as having a much harder lot, can be overdrawn. Domestics occasionally had better food and clothing but, where they existed, these advantages were offset by the tension of being under more constant Tasks considered unskilled today in slavery times required considerable judgment and discrimination. scrutiny and forever on-call that closer contact with the master’s family brought. Field hands at least normally had evenings to themselves. Moreover, many types of domestic work, such as washing, which might appear relatively unskilled today, required both strength and discrimination because it was not a simple matter of putting clothes in a machine but of heating water in iron kettles, using dangerous soaps made from lye or other corrosive materials, bringing water and clothes to a boil, Interior of a slave kitchen. and removing them without scalding oneself and others around. At a more primitive level, it might involve pounding clothes in a stream. In either case, it required a close-to-craftsman’s touch to effect the purpose without destroying the object. Ironing was also a cumbersome and dangerous process. Cooking, successfully done, demanded the art of composition in producing appealing recipes, the benefit of experience in knowing how to move food around in a hearth or on an iron stove or in an oven in such a way as to bake or cook evenly without burning, including the ability to judge temperatures as well as to move heavy implements, and required definite talents not always easily acquired. Despite the obvious value of accomplished domestics, the conditions of their labor did not inspire harmony and inevitable mistakes could bring unjustifiable wrath from both master and mistress sometimes merely because either or all were having bad days. Opportunities for such contretemps were multiple because slavery everywhere involved a contest of wills. In many cases, however, domestics served only part-time in the master’s abode, who might not be wealthy enough to afford a separate staff of house servants; they might labor in the master’s dwelling, sleep in the slave quarters, and find themselves in the fields during harvest season.
Afternoon: Arrive in Herceg Novi, Montenegro and check in at the hotel. For those who are still feeling energetic upon arrival, the Group Leader will lead an optional walk into the Old Town. Although actually one of the younger towns of the Montenegrin coast, Herceg Novi originated during the Roman Empire. It is special thanks to its exceptional landscape on the slopes of Mount Orjen, the highest mountain in the Dinaric Alps, facing one of the world's most beautiful bays. The once strong, high, city walls have deteriorated over centuries due to earthquakes and the ravages of war, but enough remains to recall an extraordinary history and heritage including vestiges of the Turkish, Venetian, Spanish, and Austro-Hungarian periods.
Like his hero, Defoe was a jack-of-all-trades. An outspoken Dissenter who did time for his religious beliefs in Newgate—itself a kind of desert island—he worked as a hosier, tile maker, wine importer, horse dealer, oyster farmer, perfumer, linen trader, pamphleteer, and spy before turning, at the age of fifty-nine, to fiction. As Watt points out, only a society such as Defoe’s own, well advanced in the division of labor, could find the minutiae of Crusoe’s chores as engrossing as Crusoe himself does: “ ’Tis a little wonderful, and what I believe few People have thought much upon, ( viz .) the strange multitude of little Things necessary in the Providing, Producing, Curing, Dressing, Making and Finishing this one Article of Bread,” he rhapsodizes about his newfound skill as a baker.