In many disciplines, Western methods of conducting research are predominant.  Researchers are overwhelmingly taught Western methods of data collection and study. The increasing participation of indigenous peoples as researchers has brought increased attention to the lacuna in culturally-sensitive methods of data collection. Non-Western methods of data collection may not be the most accurate or relevant for research on non-Western societies. For example, " Hua Oranga " was created as a criterion for psychological evaluation in Māori populations, and is based on dimensions of mental health important to the Māori people – "taha wairua (the spiritual dimension), taha hinengaro (the mental dimension), taha tinana (the physical dimension), and taha whanau (the family dimension)". 
Because the Publication Manual provides guidelines for writers submitting manuscripts to scholarly journals, it is silent on the topic of tables of contents. Usually questions about tables of contents come from students or teachers who want the information to complete a class assignment. Style preferences for undergraduate writing can vary by discipline, university, and instructor. Instructors should provide their preferred formatting guidelines if they require tables of contents; if guidelines are not included with the assignment or syllabus, students can request them.