In this dissertation I have looked into postmodernism within photography and how this has changed what is the 'real' and how the media influence the real and our emotions and shapes our world today. The rise in postmodernism meant a no-ending reference for every photograph, film etc. On photograph refers to another photograph which refers to a video, which in turn refers another photograph and so on. There was nothing new; post modernism was the end of the new. This results in a loss of the real, a loss of just purely descriptive photography. This loss of the real within photography is only enhanced by developments in photography making it accessible to everyone meaning the value of a photograph and photography is not as high. Which in turn is was not helped by the development in video and film, anyone being able to create a freeze-frame, a moment trapped in time by pausing their DVD, VHS or live TV player. Photography has lost what was special about it - the decisive moment. Therefore, older more traditional photographic methods have begun to be used again, in a search for the 'real' within photography. Furthermore, the media document every event and present their interpretation of this event to people in images. People experience and re-live that event through the images the media presented to us, and add those images into their own memories even though they did not actually experience the event themselves. This leads to losing what we know as reality. In my opinion, postmodernism and the no-ending reference meant that we are now always looking for analysis of a photograph and a reason and reference behind it. We cannot appreciate the beauty of a photograph if we are looking for something else within it, and that is where and why we end up losing a sense of the 'real'. Developments in photography and film also have not helped with this, and a limit on the amount of photographs we take would mean the images can assist our memory not be our memory. This sense of the 'real' is not lost, but could be forgotten within photography, and taking a step back just to look at a photograph as a whole would bring back the 'real' into that photograph.
The exact definition of postmodernism is a subject of heated debate. Broadly defined, it describes everything following the so called modern historical period of the mid 20th century. Rapid advances in technology created an unprecedented upheaval in society, art, and culture, all of which have been associated with the postmodernist movement. Most consider postmodernism to be a literary and philosophical reaction to the optimistic Modernist ideals of progress and reason. Its works often take a dystopian or nihilistic view, where constant technological change and mediation rob us of our humanity and all things "real". One of its major themes is that everything has been done before and our culture is now a mass-produced mashup of recycled ideas and icons. While proponents see it as a liberating way to frame reality despite the inherent bias of language and media, its critics consider methods like deconstruction an intellectual cop-out. Despite the debate, there is no doubt that postmodern ideas have both reflected and shaped our world today.
In 2011, Luke Turner published a Metamodernist Manifesto .  The manifesto recognised "oscillation to be the natural order of the world" and called for an end to "the inertia resulting from a century of modernist ideological naivety and the cynical insincerity of its antonymous bastard child". Instead, it proposed metamodernism as "the mercurial condition between and beyond irony and sincerity, naivety and knowingness, relativism and truth, optimism and doubt, in pursuit of a plurality of disparate and elusive horizons."  The text cited the work of Vermeulen and van den Akker, and concluded “we must go forth and oscillate!”   Turner later credited his manifesto to the actor Shia LaBeouf as part of the pair's wider artistic collaboration.